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APA 7 Style Guide

Everything you need to know to create a paper using APA style.

In-Text Citations

Your in-text citation for audiovisual materials should refer to the timestamp of where your quoted information begins and takes the place of page numbers.

For example, (Smith, 2009, 3:20).

You may also refer to a track number if citing an album, (Smith, 2009, track 11).


With DOI:

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. 


No DOI, From Academic Research Database:

Martin, G. R. R. (2011). A feast for crows (R. Dotrice, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Voyager Books. 

No DOI with a Nondatabase URL:

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016) Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co. 

Film or Video Recording

You don't need to specify how you watched a film (DVD, in theaters, etc), but you may add identifying version information inside the [Film] brackets.

Hawks, H. (Director/Producer). (1946). The big sleep [Film]. Warner Home Video.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. Wing Nut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Lyons, B. (Producer), & Wood, M. (Writer/Director). (2004). In search of the Trojan war [Film]. Warner Home Video.

Images Online

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting].

Online/Streaming Videos

Note: the author is who uploaded the video, not necessarily the video's creator.

BYU Library. (2018, January 22). Le skeleton [Video]. YouTube.

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

Hawks, H. (Director/Producer). (1940). His girl Friday [Film]. Kanopy.



Vedentam, S. (Host). (2019, October 21). What monkeys can teach us about being human [Audio podcast episode]. In Hidden brain. NPR.

Weiser, J. (Host). (2019). Rip Van Winkle: Bad dad (No. 159) [Audio podcast episode]. In Myths & legends


Vedentam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast episode]. NPR.

Weiser, J. (Host). (2015-present). Myths & legends [Audio podcast].

Presentation, Speech, Lecture

Cite according to the format to which you're referring (i.e. for a sound recording if a recorded speech, to a print book if text of the speech is recorded in the book, etc). You may end up needing to do an in-text citation in accordance with a secondary/indirect quotation, where you only cite the work you're drawing from and mention the individual speaker in the text of your paper.

Ex, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s famous "I Have a Dream" speech exhibits [blah blah blah] (as cited in Smith, 2000, p. 204).



  • Only include a url if that location is the only way of accessing a recording, e.g. an artist only on SoundCloud.
  • For in-text citations, include side and band or track numbers, e.g. (Ellington, 1926, track 2).


Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.


Single Song or Track

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Ellington, D. (2001). Mood indigo [Song recorded by Duke Ellington and the Cotton Club Orchestra]. On Duke Ellington: Masterpieces 1926-1949. Proper Records. (Original work published 1926)

TED Talks

Just like other movies or TV shows, the exact formatting of a citation for TED Talk will vary slightly depending on where you viewed it. 

From the TED Website:

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences.


From YouTube:

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. YouTube.


TV Episodes:

Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Series 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive producer), Doctor Who. BBC Broadcasting.

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005, January 10). Failure to communicate (Season 2, Episode 10)[TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.

Peters, S., Jarman, Z. (Writers), & Ansari, A. (Producer). (2015, November 6). Ladies and gentlemen (Season 1, Episode 7) [TV series episode]. In A. Ansari (Executive producer), Master of None.


TV Series:

Davies, R. T. (Executive producer). (2007). Doctor who [TV series]. BBC Broadcasting.