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APA 7 Style Guide

Everything you need to know to create a paper using APA style.

NOTE:  When citing a document from the Internet, do not put a period at the end of the citation when the last element of the citation is a URL or digital object identifier (DOI). 

 

Elements of a Reference Citation of Online Material

Author. (date). Title. Website name. http://...

Author (APA 9.7)

The author refers broadly to the person(s) or group responsible for a work. If you are not sure who is taking responsibility for the information, look for an About Us link or who is copyrighting the material.

Date (APA 9.13)

Beware: many websites include a current date feature, which dates the page with today’s date. This is not the date upon which the information was written, it is the date you are viewing it. In your citation, you need to include the date the information was written.

  1. A byline date is sometimes used near the top of the webpage: May 1, 2004
  2. A date of last update may be found at the top or bottom of the page and looks something like: Updated: 8:43 a.m. MT May 10, 2009.
  3. If the website has no date associated with it, your citation will reflect this by an (n.d.) where the date should be.
  4. If all you can find is the copyright date for the page, chances are this is a generic footer used across the website. Use (n.d.) in place of a date.

Website Name, Publisher

Look for what's actually written on the page itself (probably in the upper left corner) rather than in the address bar for the website's name. Every website has to be Something.com or Whatever.org or RandomExamples.net; that doesn't mean the website organizers consider the domain ending (.com, .net, etc) to be part of the website's official name.

To get an idea of who the publisher is, look towards the very bottom of the page for the copyright notice or for an About page.

Online Articles with a Personal Author

In APA 7th edition, articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox) will have the title of the article italicized but not the name of the source. Sources that have both an online and print presence (e.g., The Washington Post or New York Times), will italicize the name of the source but not the title of the article.

Available Online-Only

Beaven, Brad. (2020, January 20). The modern phenomenon of the weekend. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200117-the-modern-phenomenon-of-the-weekend

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/what-happens-mind-body-homesick_n_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1

Available both Web and Print

Herrera, Tim. (2020, January 19). What to do with a day off. The New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/19/smarter-living/what-to-do-with-a-day-off.html 

McGonigal, Kelly. (2020, January 21). Here's how exercise reduces anxiety and makes you feel more connected. The Washington Posthttps://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/2020/01/21/heres-how-exercise-reduces-anxiety-makes-you-feel-more-connected/

Online Articles with No Author

Two years on, the Kuiper Belt is in sight. (2017, September 16). The Economist. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2017/09/16/two-years-on-the-kuiper-belt-is-in-sight

In-text citation: ("Two years on," 2017)

Online Articles with a Group Author

American Heart Association. (2015, January 12). Good vs bad cholesterol. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Good-vs-Bad-Cholesterol_UCM_
305561_Article.jsp

Health Central Network. (2009). Heart attack symptoms and warning signs. http://www.healthcentral.com/heart-disease/patient-guide-44510-6.html

Blog Post

A blog post will basically be like a regular web article citation, though you might not have a person's real name to use.

Be very cautious if you're referencing a blog or comment in your paper. These aren't generally the best sources to use.


Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Scie-Ed. https://blogs.plus.org/scied/
2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will

In-text citation: (Klymkowsky, 2018)

 

If you're referring to a comment on a blog post:

KS in NJ. (2019, January 15). From this article, it sounds like men are figuring something out that women have known forever. I know of many [Comment on the article "How workout buddies can help stave off loneliness"]. The Washington Post. http://wapo.st/2HDToGJ

In-text citation: (KS in NJ, 2019)

Podcasts

APA 10.13.93,94:
  • List the host of the podcast as the author. Alternatively, provide the executive producers, if known. In either case, include their role in parentheses.
  • Specify the type of podcase (audio or video) in square brackets
  • If the URL of the podcast is unknown (e.g. if accessed via an app), omit the URL.

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

To cite a podcast episode:

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park 

Images Online

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. http://www.uwm.edu/~wash/rousseau.jpg

An Entire Website

If you are mentioning a website in your paper and not indicating a specific idea, fact or document, it is acceptable to simply include the URL of the website in parentheses within your writing.  For example:

The MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia allows users to browse for topics and find information on a variety of health topics and medical procedures (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html).

However, if you are referring to a specific piece of information or directly quoting information on the website, you will need to create both a text and reference citation for that material. If you're using multiple pages/articles from the same website, each one counts as its own source.

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