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APA 7 Style Guide

Everything you need to know to create a paper using APA style.

Journal Article with DOI Found in an Academic Database or on the Web

Include a DOI for all journal articles that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version. [APA 9.34]

Aguilar, C. M., Morocco, C. C., Parker, C. E., & Zigmond, N. (2006). Middletown High School: Equal opportunity for academic achievement. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21(3), 159-171.

Bollingmo, G. C., Wessel, E. O., Eilertsen, D. E., & Magnussen, S. (2008). Credibility of the emotional witness: A study of ratings by police investigators. Psychology, Crime & Law, 14(1), 29-40.

Constanigro, M., McCluskey, J. J., & Mittelhammer, R.C. (2007). Segmenting the wine market based on price: Hedonic regression when different prices mean different products. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 58(3), 454-466.

Journal Article without DOI Found in an Academic Database

If you used an academic research database to find an article, and the work does not have a DOI, then treat the work as a print work without a DOI. Do not include session-specific URLs from academic research databases in your papers. [APA 7 Blog]

Deitz, S. R., & Sissman, P. L. (1984). Investigating jury bias in a child molestation case. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 2(4), 423-434. 

De Muro, P., & Gabrysch, L. (2007). A survey of new developments in tax-exemption law: What compliance officers need to know. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 9(6), 15-61. 

Dybvik, A. C. (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: What happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next, 4(1), 42-49. 

Journal Article without DOI from Proprietary/Limited-Circulation Database or the Web

If you used a database with proprietary or limited-circulation content, meaning readers need to go to that database in particular to find the work, then provide a link to the content directly if possible. [APA 7 Blog] If the URL requires a login or is session specific, meaning it will not resolve for readers, provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. [APA 9.34]

Van Der Merwe, D. (2019). Exploring the relationship between ICT use, mental health symptoms and well-being of the historically disadvantaged open distance learning student: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Learning, 20(1), 35-52.

Magazine Article

Farelly, E. (2008, March/April). Fear of not having had. Orion.

Markman, A. (2008, November 19). Does reading fiction really improve your social ability? Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers.

Technical and Research Reports

Technical and research reports are cited much like books, except for the inclusion of the report number, which may take a variety of forms. 

Group Author

  • A group author is an organization or institution that takes credit/responsibility for information instead of a single person.
  • If the group author is the same as the publisher, omit the publisher element to avoid repetition.
  • If multiple layers of an organization are identified, use only the agency most directly responsible for the work as the author. The other layers may appear as publisher information later in the citation.

Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012). Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007 (EPA 430-R-09-004).  


Personal Author

James, D. J. & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates (NJC 213600). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Same Author, Same Year, 2 Articles

If you have more than one article by the same creator and from the same year (or all with no known year, n.d.), you'll add letters after the year to distinguish the sources.

Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36, 416–428.

Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 945–959.

In the text, citations would be styled as follows: (Koriat, 2008a) and (Koriat, 2008b).

Works with no date will look like (n.d.-a), (n.d.-b), and so on (note the hyphen).