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Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) Citation Help

View examples, get interactive practice, and format your paper with Chicago Style citation!

Images (Online or Physical)

Omit the URL for art you've viewed in person.

Full Note:

1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Image Title, Year, medium, dimensions, physical location, URL.

Concise Note:

2. Author Surname, Image Title.

Bibliography:

Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Image Title. Year. Medium, dimensions. Location. URL.

Full Note:

1. Jan Griffier, Dutch Snow Scene with Skaters, c.1695, oil on canvas, 83 x 94 cm, Merchant Adventurers' Hall, York, https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/dutch-snow-scene-with-skaters-10363.

Concise Note:

2. Griffier, Dutch Snow Scene.

Bibliography: Note: Chicago does not require that you include art in your bibliography, though your professor might!

Griffier, Jan. Dutch Snow Scene with Skaters. c.1695. Oil on canvas, 83 x 94 cm. Merchant Adventurers' Hall. https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/dutch-snow-scene-with-skaters-10363.


Full Note:

1. Pablo Picasso, Bull's Head, spring 1942, bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 x 43.5 x 19 cm, Musée Picasso Paris.

Concise Note:

2. Picasso, Bull's Head.

Bibliography:

Picasso, Pablo. Bull's Head. Spring 1942. Bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 x 43.5 x 19 cm. Musée Picasso Paris.

Full Note:

1. Dorothea Lange, Black Maria, Oakland, 1957, printed 1965, gelatin silver print, 39.3 x 37 cm, Art Institute, Chicago, http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/220174.

Concise Note:

2. Lange, Black Maria, Oakland.

Bibliography:

Lange, Dorothea. Black Maria, Oakland. 1957, printed 1965. Gelatin silver print, 39.3 x 37 cm. Art Institute, Chicago. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/220174.


Full Note:

1. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

Concise Note:

2. McCurry, Afghan Girl.

Bibliography:

McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985.

Full Note:

1. Lone Star College-University Park Student Learning Resource Center, Collage of library photos profile image, n.d., color image, Citations: Chicago Style, http://upresearch.lonestar.edu/chicago.

Concise Note:

2. Lone Star Collage, Collage.

Bibliography:

1. Lone Star College-University Park Student Learning Resource Center. Collage of library photos profile image. N.d., color image. Citations: Chicago Style. http://upresearch.lonestar.edu/chicago.

Image in a Book

Full Note:

1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, "Photograph Title," Year Photo was Taken (if provided), in Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page or plate #. 

Concise Note:

2. Author Surname, "Photograph Title."

Bibliography:

Author Surname, First Name or Initial. "Photograph Title." Year Photo was Taken (if provided). In Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page or plate #.
 

"Figure" can be abbreviated to fig. but table, map, plate, and other labels should be spelled out. Page number (if available) should precede the illustration number.

Full Note:

1. Franz Jansen, "8 O'Clock," 1920, in German Expressionist Woodcuts, ed. Shane Weller (New York: Dover Publications, 1994), plate 12.

Concise Note:

2. Jansen, "8 O'Clock."

Bibliography:

Jansen, Franz. "8 O'Clock." 1920. In German Expressionist Woodcuts, edited by Shane Weller. New York: Dover Publications, 1994, plate 12. 

Movie or Video Recording

The order of elements (and what you include) will depend on the format you watched as well as whether you're focusing on a particular piece or aspect of the overall work.


Full Note:

1. "Scene Title or Number," Title of Motion Picture, directed by Director First Name Surname (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Format.

Concise Note:

2. "Scene Title or Number."

Bibliography:

"Scene Title or Number." Title of Motion Picture. Directed by Director First Name Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format.
 

Full Note:

1. "Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.

Concise Note:

2. "Crop Duster Attack."

Bibliography:

"Crop Duster Attack." North by Northwest. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1959. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD.


Full Note:

1. Gravity, directed by Alfonso Cuaron (2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014), Blue-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Bibliography:

Curaon, Alfonso, dir. Gravity. 2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014. Blue-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Online/Streaming Videos

The order of elements (and what you include) will depend on the format you watched as well as whether you're focusing on a particular piece or aspect of the overall work.

Source type refers to the original format (e.g. 35 mm), and format is the version you viewed (e.g. DVD, YouTube video). Cite the video according to its original release information first, then add in details about the digital version.


Full Note:

1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Multimedia Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), source type, format, URL.

Concise Note:

2. Author Surname, Multimedia Title.

Bibliography:

Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Multimedia Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format, URL.

Example 1

Full Note:

1. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film; from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898-1906, MPEG video, 2:19, https://www.loc.gov/item/00694378/.

Concise Note:

2. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron.

Bibliography:

Weed, A. E. At the Foot of the Flatiron. American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903; 35 mm film. From Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898-1906. MPEG video, 2:19. https://www.loc.gov/item/00694378/.


Example 2

Full Note:

1. W. K. L. Dickson, Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze (Edison Manufacturing Co., 1894), 35 mm film, YouTube video, 0:07, posted by "FreeClassicMovies1," April 3, 2012, https://youtu.be/oUC1QlXVhiM.

Concise Note:

2. Dickson, Record of a Sneeze.

Bibliography:

Dickson, W. K. L. Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze. Edison Manufacturing Co., 1894, 35 mm film. YouTube video, 0:07. Posted by "FreeClassicMovies1," April 3, 2012. https://youtu.be/oUC1QlXVhiM.

Music

Like movies, the inclusion and order of various elements will depend on the the recording itself and how you accessed it. If your source doesn't indicate a date of recording or publication, use other sources to locate this information. Recordings on LP or disc will usually have an acquisition number, which should be included after the name of the recording company (no comma separating them).


Footnote (Full Note):

1. Creator or Group, "Title of Song," other contributors, recording date, Recording Company or publisher acquisition number, track number on Album Title, year of release, format.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Creator/Group, "Title," time stamp.

Bibliography:

Name of group or composer or performer. Title. Recording date. Recording Company or Publisher, format.

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Leslie Odom, Jr., performer, "Wait For It," by Lin-Manuel Miranda, recorded 2015, with Hamilton ensemble cast, track 13 on Hamilton (Original Broadway Cast Recording), vol. 1, Atlantic 551093-2, compact disc.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Odom, "Wait For It," 2:16.

Bibliography/Discography:

Miranda, Lin-Manuel, writer/performer. Hamilton (Original Broadway Cast Recording). Atlantic 551093-2, 2015, 2 compact discs.

Audiobook

Follow this model for musical recordings as well as recorded readings, lectures, audiobooks, and so on. Live performances cannot be referenced by a reader, so you'd typically just describe those in-text.


Footnote (Full Note):

1. Creator First Name Surname, Title of Work, other contributors, (place of publication: publisher, year), format, timestamp.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Creator Surname, Title, time stamp.

Bibliography:

Creator Surname, First Name. Title of Work. Other contributor. Place of Publication: Publisher, year. Format, run time.

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Cheryl Strayed, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, read by Bernadette Dunne, (New York: Random House Audio, 2012), Audible audio ed., 6:42:20.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Strayed, Wild, 12:34:17.

Bibliography/Discography:

Strayed, Cheryl. Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail. Read by Bernadette Dunne. New York: Random House Audio, 2012. Audible audio ed., 13 hr., 6 min.

Interviews (Video)

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Interviewee First Name Surname, interview by Interviewer Name, Name of TV Show/Production, Publisher, date, url.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Interviewee Surname, interview.

Bibliography:

Interviewee Surname, First Name. Interview by Interviewer Name. Name of TV Show/Production, Publisher. Date. url.

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Russell Crowe, interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose, April 23, 2015, http://www.charlierose.com/watch/60551640.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Crowe, interview.

Bibliography:

Crowe, Russell. Interview by Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose. April 23, 2015. http://www.charlierose.com/watch/60551640.


Footnote (Full Note):

1. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour, PBS, February 7, 1990.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Bundy, interview.

Bibliography:

Bundy, McGeorge. Interview by Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer News Hour, PBS. February 7, 1990.

Maps

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Cartographer First Name Surname, cartographer, Title of Map (if given) or a Description, year created, scale, size, publication details.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Cartographer Surname, Title of Map/Description (shortened).

Bibliography:

Cartographer Surname, First Name. Title of Map (if given) or a Description. Year created. Scale, size. Publication details.

This example is for a map reprinted in a book which is part of a multi-volume collection.

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Samuel de Champlain, cartographer, Carte geographrique de la Nouvelle Franse, 1612, 43 x 76 cm, in The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), fig. 51.3.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. de Champlain, Carte geographique de la Nouvelle Franse.

Bibliography:

de Champlain, Samuel. Carte geographique de la Nouvelle Franse. 1612. 43 x 76 cm. In The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.


This example is for a map reproduced as a stone rubbing for a museum,  which has been digitized and found through the Library of Congress site. The bracketed text provides the English translation of the map's title.

Footnote (Full Note):

1. Yu ji tu [Map of the tracks of Yu], AD 1136, Forest of Stone Steles Museum, Xi'an, China, stone rubbing, 1933?, 84 x 82 cm, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/item/gm71005080.

Footnote (Shortened Note):

2. Yu ji tu [Map of the tracks of Yu].

Bibliography:

Yu ji tu [Map of the tracks of Yu]. AD 1136. Forest of Stone Steles Museum, Xi'an, China. Stone rubbing, 1933?. 84 x 82 cm. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/item/gm71005080.

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